Steatopygia (//; Greek: στεατοπυγία) is a high degree of fat accumulation in and around the buttocks. The deposit of fat is not confined to the gluteal regions, but extends to the outside and front of the thighs, forming a thick layer reaching sometimes to the knee.
Steatopygia is a genetic characteristic of the Khoisan and some Bantu peoples. It is especially prevalent in women, but also occurs to a lesser degree in men. In most populations of Homo sapiens, females are more likely than men to accumulate adipose tissue in the buttock region. It has also been observed among the Pygmies of Central Africa and the Onge-tribe of the Andaman Islands. Among the Khoisan, it is regarded as a sign of beauty. It begins in infancy and is fully developed by the time of the first pregnancy.
Steatopygia would seem to have been a characteristic of a population that once extended from the Gulf of Aden to the Cape of Good Hope,
of which Khoisan and Pygmies are remnants. While the Khoisan are most
noticeable examples, it occurs in other parts of Africa, and occurs even
more frequently among male Basters than among Khoikhoi women. It is also observed among Andamanese Negrito women.
It has been suggested that this feature was once more widespread. Paleolithic Venus figurines,
sometimes referred to as "steatopygian Venus" figures, discovered from
Europe to Asia and presenting a remarkable development of the thighs,
and even the prolongation of the labia minora, have been used to support
this theory. Whether these were intended to be lifelike or
exaggeratory, even idealistic, is unclear. However, these figures do not
strictly qualify as steatopygian, since they exhibit an angle of
approximately 120 degrees between the back and the buttocks, while steatopygia is diagnosed at an angle of about 90 degrees only.