Tuesday, January 31, 2012


Albertosaurus (meaning "Alberta lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, more than 70 million years ago. The type species, A. sarcophagus, was restricted in range to the modern-day Canadian province of Alberta, after which the genus is named. Scientists disagree on the content of the genus, with some recognizing Gorgosaurus libratus as a second species.

As a tyrannosaurid, Albertosaurus was a bipedal predator with tiny, two-fingered hands and a massive head with dozens of large, sharp teeth. It may have been at the top of the food chain in its local ecosystem. Although relatively large for a theropod, Albertosaurus was much smaller than its more famous relative Tyrannosaurus, probably weighing less than 2 metric tons.

Monday, January 30, 2012


Crypto-Pagans are pagan and neoplatonic groups that have had to pretend to be members of a mandated or mainstream religion while secretly practicing their true religion.

Sunday, January 29, 2012


The exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. In the exosphere, an upward travelling molecule moving fast enough to attain escape velocity can escape to space with a low chance of collisions; if it is moving below escape velocity it will be prevented from escaping from the celestial body by gravity. In either case, such a molecule is unlikely to collide with another molecule due to the exosphere's low density.

The altitude of its lower boundary, known as the thermopause and exobase, ranges from about 250 to 500 kilometres (160 to 310 mi) depending on solar activity

The upper boundary of the exosphere can be defined theoretically by the altitude about 190,000 kilometres (120,000 mi), half the distance to the Moon, at which the influence of solar radiation pressure on atomic hydrogen velocities exceeds that of the Earth’s gravitational pull

Saturday, January 28, 2012


Affricates are consonants that begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as [t] or [d]) but release as a fricative (such as [s] or [z] or occasionally into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel.

Friday, January 27, 2012


Finno-Ugric or Fenno-Ugric is a group of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising the Finno-Permic and Ugric language families.

Proto-Finno-Ugric is the reconstructed protolanguage for the Finno-Ugric languages, i.e., the ancestor of all Uralic languages except for the Samoyedic languages. Its reconstructed parent language is Proto-Uralic, which split into Proto-Finno-Ugric and Proto-Samoyedic. This classification is not without problems; Proto-Finno-Ugric may be interpreted as a geographical grouping instead of a genetic grouping because the differences are few. It has been suggested that the area where Proto-Finno-Ugric was spoken reached between the Baltic Sea and the Ural mountains.

Thursday, January 26, 2012


Dreimorengesetz is a German term which translates to "three-mora rule." This name is given to the rule for placing the accent in a Latin word. With few exceptions, Latin words are stressed on the penult (second-to-last syllable) if it is "heavy" (ending with a long vowel or consonant), and on the antepenult (third-to-last syllable) if the penult is "light" (ending with a short vowel.)

Wednesday, January 25, 2012


Narratology denotes both the theory and the study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways that these affect our perception. While in principle the word may refer to any systematic study of narrative, in practice its usage is rather more restricted. It is an anglicisation of French narratologie, coined by Tzvetan Todorov (Grammaire du Décaméron, 1969). Narratology is applied retrospectively as well to work predating its coinage. Its theoretical lineage is traceable to Aristotle (Poetics) but modern narratology is agreed to have begun with the Russian Formalists, particularly Vladimir Propp (Morphology of the Folktale, 1928).

Tuesday, January 24, 2012


An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Recently, electronic "documents" such as recordings and radio, blogs, and e-mails have also come into use. The word epistolary comes from the Latin word epistola, meaning a letter.

The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, because it mimics the workings of real life. It is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator.

Monday, January 23, 2012


In literature, the tritagonist is the third most important character of a narrative, after the protagonist and deuteragonist. In Ancient Greek drama, the tritagonist was the third member of the acting troupe.

As a character, a tritagonist may act as the instigator or cause of the sufferings of the protagonist. Despite being the least sympathetic character of the drama, he occasions the situations by which pity and sympathy for the protagonist are excited.

Sunday, January 22, 2012


A leitmotif, sometimes written leit-motif, is a musical term (though occasionally used in theatre or literature), referring to a recurring theme, associated with a particular person, place, or idea. It is closely related to the musical idea of idée fixe. The term itself comes from the German Leitmotiv, literally meaning "leading motif", or, perhaps more accurately, "guiding motif."

Friday, January 20, 2012


Description is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes of discourse), along with exposition, argumentation, and narration. Each of the rhetorical modes is present in a variety of forms and each has its own purpose and conventions.

Description is also the fiction-writing mode for transmitting a mental image of the particulars of a story.

Thursday, January 19, 2012


The word Parabellum is a noun coined by German arms maker Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken and is derived from the Latin saying si vis pacem, para bellum, meaning If you wish for peace, prepare for war. The term has been used in the naming of a number of cartridges.

  • 9x19mm Parabellum, the pistol cartridge adopted by NATO but the 9 mm NATO has different parameters than commercial makes (dimensions and pressure).
  • 7.65x22mm Parabellum, also called .30 Luger in the USA, from which the 9x19mm cartridge was derived.
The term may be used to refer to one of these cartridges, or to a German, Austrian or Swiss pistol chambered for one of those cartridges. The 9x19mm Parabellum is one of the most widely used pistol cartridges in use. The phrase a Parabellum usually refers to the Luger P08 pistol. The term may also apply to the Parabellum MG14 machine gun.

Wednesday, January 18, 2012


Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as "Corten steel", is a group of steel alloys which were developed to obviate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years.

United States Steel Corporation (USS) holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN. Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group (now Arcelor-Mittal) in 2003,[2] it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms.

The original COR-TEN received the standard designation A 242 ("COR-TEN A") from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A 588 ("COR-TEN B") and A 606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common production and use.

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

Foundation Stone

The Foundation Stone (Hebrew: אבן השתייה, translit. Even haShetiya) or Rock (Arabic: translit. Sakhrah, Hebrew: translit.: Sela) is the name of the rock at the heart of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. It is also known as the Pierced Stone because it has a small hole on the southeastern corner that enters a cavern beneath the rock, known as the Well of Souls. It is believed by some to have been the location of the Holy of Holies in the Temple, and is the holiest site in Judaism.(Midrash Tanhuma chapter 10) Jewish tradition views it as the spiritual junction of heaven and Earth. Jews traditionally face it while praying.

Monday, January 16, 2012


In finance, a straddle is an investment strategy involving the purchase or sale of particular option derivatives that allows the holder to profit based on how much the price of the underlying security moves, regardless of the direction of price movement. The purchase of particular option derivatives is known as a long straddle, while the sale of the option derivatives is known as a short straddle.

Sunday, January 15, 2012


unselfconsciousness - the quality of being not self-conscious

Saturday, January 14, 2012


Apoplexy is a medical term, which can be used to describe 'bleeding' in a cerebrovascular accident. However, without further specification it is rather outdated, and is today rather used for specific conditions, such as pituitary apoplexy and ovarian apoplexy. It can be used non-medically to mean a state of extreme rage or excitement. The word derives from the Greek word apoplēxia (ἀποπληξία).

Friday, January 13, 2012


Hagiography (pronounced /ˌhæɡiˈɒɡrəfi/) is the study of saints. A hagiography, from the Greek (h)ağios (ἅγιος, "holy" or "saint") and graphē (γραφή, "writing"), refers literally to writings on the subject of such holy people, and specifically to the biographies of ecclesiastical and secular leaders. The term hagiology, the study of hagiography, is also current in English, though less common. (This, in fact, follows original Greek practice, where ἁγιογραφία refers to visual images of the saints, while their written lives (βίοι or vitæ) or the study thereof are known as ἁγιολογία.)

Christian hagiographies focus on the lives, and notably the miracles of men and women canonized by the Roman Catholic church, the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Oriental Orthodox Church . Other religions such as Buddhism and Islam also create and maintain hagiographical texts concerning saints and other individuals believed to be imbued with the sacred.

The term "hagiographic" has also been used as a pejorative reference to the works of biographers and historians perceived to be uncritical or "reverential" to their subject.

Thursday, January 12, 2012


Hoon is a derogatory term used in Australia and New Zealand, to refer to a young person who engages in loutish, anti-social behaviour. In particular, it is used to refer to one who drives a car in a manner which is anti-social by the standards of contemporary society, that is, fast, noisily and/or dangerously. In New Zealand, the term "boy racer" is also widely used. Another slang term, revhead — derived from "rev", an alternate term for RPM — is sometimes used in place of hoon. However, "revhead" can refer to any car enthusiast, while hoon is always pejorative. "Anti-hoon laws", while they generally concern road vehicles, sometimes also target anti-social behaviour in motor boats.

Hoon activities can include speeding, burnouts, doughnuts or screeching tires. Those commonly identified as being involved in "hooning" or street racing are young, predominantly male although increasingly female drivers in the age range of 17 and 35 years.

Wednesday, January 11, 2012


A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10-15 of a second. That is one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth of a second. For context, a femtosecond is to a second, what a second is to about 31.7 million years.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012


Ceres, formally designated 1 Ceres, is the smallest identified dwarf planet in the Solar System and the only one in the asteroid belt. It was discovered on 1 January 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi, and for half a century it was classified as the eighth planet. It is named after Ceres, the Roman goddess of growing plants, the harvest, and motherly love.

With a diameter of about 950 km (590 mi), Ceres is by far the largest and most massive body in the asteroid belt, and contains almost a third (32%) of the belt's total mass. Observations have revealed that it is spherical, unlike the irregular shapes of smaller bodies with lower gravity. The Cererian surface is probably a mixture of water ice and various hydrated minerals such as carbonates and clays. Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and ice mantle, and may harbour an ocean of liquid water underneath its surface.

From the Earth, Ceres' apparent magnitude ranges from 6.7 to 9.3, and hence at its brightest it is still too dim to be seen with the naked eye. On 27 September 2007, NASA launched the Dawn space probe to explore Vesta (2011–2012) and Ceres (2015).

Monday, January 9, 2012


In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body or fruit body) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. The fruiting body is part of the sexual phase of a fungal life cycle, with the rest of the life cycle being characterized by vegetative mycelial growth and asexual spore production.

The sporocarp of a basidiomycete is known as a basidiocarp, while the fruiting body of an ascomycete is known as an ascocarp. A significant range of different shapes and morphologies is found in both basidiocarps and ascocarps; these features play an important role in the identification and taxonomy of fungi.

Sunday, January 8, 2012


A clonal colony or genet is a group of genetically identical individuals (e. g., plants, fungi, or bacteria) that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively (not sexually) from a single ancestor. In plants, an individual in such a population is referred to as a ramet. In fungi, "individuals" typically refers to the visible fruiting bodies or mushrooms that develop from a common mycelium which, although spread over a large area, is otherwise hidden in the soil. Clonal colonies are common in many plant species. Although many plants reproduce sexually through the production of seed, some plants reproduce by underground stolons or rhizomes. Above ground these plants appear to be distinct individuals, but underground they remain interconnected and are all clones of the same plant. However, it is not always easy to recognize a clonal colony especially if it spreads underground and is also sexually reproducing.

Saturday, January 7, 2012


Karaoke (カラオケ?, a portmanteau of Japanese kara 空 "empty," and ōkesutora オーケストラ "orchestra") is a form of interactive entertainment or video game in which amateur singers sing along with recorded music (and/or a music video) using a microphone and public address system. The music is typically a well-known pop song minus the lead vocal. Lyrics are usually displayed on a video screen, along with a moving symbol or changing color and/or music video images, to guide the singer. In some countries, a karaoke box is called a KTV. Due to its English pronunciation, it is sometimes incorrectly spelled "kareoke". It is also a term used by recording engineers translated as "empty track" meaning there is no vocal track.

Friday, January 6, 2012


Adagio, a tempo marking indicating that the music is to be played slowly.

Thursday, January 5, 2012


The term codebase, or code base, is used in software development to mean the whole collection of source code used to build a particular application or component. Typically, the codebase includes only human-written source code files, and not, e.g., source code files generated by other tools or binary library files. However, it generally does include configuration and property files.

The codebase for a project is typically stored in a source control repository. A source code repository is a place where large amounts of source code are kept, either publicly or privately. They are often used by multi-developer projects to handle various versions and developers submitting various patches of code in an organized fashion. Subversion is a popular tool used to handle this workflow, and is common in open source projects.

Referring to multiple codebases as "distinct" declares that there are independent implementations without shared source code and that historically these implementations did not evolve from a common codebase. In the case of standards this may be a way of demonstrating interoperability by showing two independent pieces of software that implement a given standard.

Wednesday, January 4, 2012


Mu-metal is a nickel-iron alloy (approximately 75% nickel, 15% iron, plus copper and molybdenum) that has very high magnetic permeability. The high permeability makes mu-metal very effective at screening static or low-frequency magnetic fields, which cannot be attenuated by other methods. The name came from the Greek letter mu (μ) which represents permeability. A number of different proprietary formulations of the alloy are sold under trade names such as Mumetal, MuMetal, and MuShield; this article will cover their common features.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012


The term validity in logic (also logical validity) is largely synonymous with logical truth. However, the term is used in different contexts. Validity is a property of formulae, statements and arguments. A logically valid argument is one where the conclusion follows from the premises. An invalid argument is where the conclusion does not follow from the premises. A deductive argument may be valid but not sound. In other words, validity is a necessary condition for truth of a deductive syllogism but is not a sufficient condition.

Monday, January 2, 2012


The jerib or djerib is a traditional unit of land measurement in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. It is a unit of area used to measure land holdings (real property) in much the way that an acre or hectare are. Like most traditional units of measure, the jerib originally varied substantially from one location to another. However, in the Twentieth Century, the jerib has been regionally, if not uniformly defined. In many countries where it was traditionally used, it is equated with the hectare, for example in Turkey and Iran. In Afghanistan, however, it is standardized at 1/5 hectare (2000 square meters or 0.494 acre).

Sunday, January 1, 2012


Asteroseismology (from Greek ἀστήρ, astēr, "star"; σεισμός, seismos, "earthquake"; and -λογία, -logia) also known as stellar seismology is the science that studies the internal structure of pulsating stars by the interpretation of their frequency spectra. Different oscillation modes penetrate to different depths inside the star. These oscillations provide information about the otherwise unobservable interiors of stars in a manner similar to how seismologists study the interior of Earth and other solid planets through the use of earthquake oscillations.