Sunday, March 31, 2013

preferred numbers

In industrial design, preferred numbers (also called preferred values) are standard guidelines for choosing exact product dimensions within a given set of constraints. Product developers must choose numerous lengths, distances, diameters, volumes, and other characteristic quantities. While all of these choices are constrained by considerations of functionality, usability, compatibility, safety or cost, there usually remains considerable leeway in the exact choice for many dimensions.

Saturday, March 30, 2013


Galling usually refers to the adhesive wear and transfer of material between metallic surfaces in relative converging contact during sheet metal forming and other industrial operations.

In engineering science and in other technical aspects, the term galling is widespread. In recent years, there have been attempts to standardize or redefine the word in coordination with greater understanding of the involved frictional mechanisms. ASTM International has formulated and established a common definition for the technical aspect of the galling phenomenon in the ASTM G40 standard: "Galling is a form of surface damage arising between sliding solids, distinguished by microscopic, usually localized, roughening and creation of protrusions, (i.e. lumps, see figure 1), above the original surface".

Friday, March 29, 2013


Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow), also collectively known as Vitamin P and citrin, are a class of plant secondary metabolites or yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones. Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants fulfilling many functions.

Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals.

The widespread distribution of flavonoids, their variety and their relatively low toxicity compared to other active plant compounds (for instance alkaloids) mean that many animals, including humans, ingest significant quantities in their diet. Preliminary research indicates that flavonoids may modify allergens, viruses, and carcinogens, and so may be biological "response modifiers". In vitro studies show that flavonoids also have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-diarrheal activities.

Thursday, March 28, 2013


Swaging is a forging process in which the dimensions of an item are altered using a die or dies, into which the item is forced. Swaging is usually a cold working process; however, it is sometimes done as a hot working process.

The term swage can apply to the process of swaging (verb), or to a die or tool used for swaging (noun).

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Tuesday, March 26, 2013


The Reuben sandwich is a hot sandwich of layered meat, sauerkraut and Swiss cheese, with a dressing. These are grilled between slices of rye bread. The meat is either corned beef or pastrami, and the dressing is either Russian or Thousand Island dressing. Several variants exist.

Monday, March 25, 2013



British slang for leaders of the EU who make bureaucratic laws that affect people mostly not in favour of the European Union. Obviously, thew name is borne of 'European Bureaucrat', and it means just that.

Sunday, March 24, 2013


Ribaldry is humorous entertainment that ranges from bordering on indelicacy to gross indecency. It is a genre of sexual entertainment, in addition to pornography and erotica. It is also referred to as "bawdiness", "gaminess" or "bawdry".

Unlike either pornography or erotica, which play sexual intercourse or sexual fetishes "straight", ribaldry aims at humor. Sexual situations and titillation are presented in ribald material more for the purpose of poking fun at the foibles and weaknesses that manifest themselves in human sexuality, rather than to present sexual stimulation either excitingly or artistically. Also, ribaldry may use sex as a metaphor to illustrate some non-sexual concern, in which case ribaldry may verge on the territory of satire.

Saturday, March 23, 2013


sagacious (comparative more sagacious, superlative most sagacious)

  1. Having or showing keen discernment, sound judgment, and farsightedness.

Friday, March 22, 2013


Mortsafes were contraptions designed to protect the bodies of the dead from disturbance. There had been body-snatching close to the schools of anatomy in Scotland since the early 18th century. This was due to the necessity for medical students to learn anatomy by attending dissections of human subjects, which was frustrated by the very limited allowance of dead bodies - for example the corpses of executed criminals - granted by the government, which controlled the supply.

Thursday, March 21, 2013

Wednesday, March 20, 2013


A sidegrade is a term used with computer software to refer to transferring a piece of software to another operating system than that for which the software was originally licensed, without necessarily changing the version of the software.

The term is most commonly used by software manufacturers and retailers to describe whether or not payment is required to transfer one's current software license to a different operating system. Some manufacturers require payment for a sidegrade, some simply require authorization in some form, and some make sidegrades transparent by allowing a licensed software serial number to work on any supported operating system.

In cases where certain service providers make a change to customer's account that entails neither an upgrade (which by their standards would denote an increase in service and a proportionate increase in revenue) nor a downgrade, they have been known to use the term 'sidegrade' internally.

The word is a transformation of the word "upgrade," which normally implies a change in version number but not operating system.

Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Front of house

Front of house (abbreviated FOH) is primarily a theatrical term, referring to the portion of the building that is open to the public. In theatre and live music venues, it typically refers to the auditorium and foyer, as opposed to the stage and backstage areas. In theatre, the front of house manager is responsible for ticket sales, refreshments, and making sure auditorium is set out properly.

"Front of house" has also come into use in the food service industry, referring to the area where the general public dines. In this context, the kitchen is referred to as "back of house".

Monday, March 18, 2013


A haplotype (from the Greek: ἁπλοῦς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") in genetics is a combination of alleles (DNA sequences) at different places (loci) on the chromosome that are transmitted together. A haplotype may be one locus, several loci, or an entire chromosome depending on the number of recombination events that have occurred between a given set of loci.

In a second meaning, haplotype is a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a single chromosome of a chromosome pair that are statistically associated. It is thought that these associations, and the identification of a few alleles of a haplotype block, can unambiguously identify all other polymorphic sites in its region. Such information is very valuable for investigating the genetics behind common diseases, and has been investigated in the human species by the International HapMap Project.

Sunday, March 17, 2013


Tokonoma (床の間), also referred to simply as toko, is a Japanese term generally referring to a built-in recessed space in a Japanese style reception room, in which items for artistic appreciation are displayed. In English, tokonoma is usually called alcove. The items usually displayed in a tokonoma are calligraphic and/or pictorial scrolls and an arrangement of flowers. Bonsai and okimono are also often displayed there. The tokonoma and its contents are essential elements of traditional Japanese interior decoration. The word 'toko' literally means "floor" or "bed"; 'ma' means "space" or "room."

Saturday, March 16, 2013


A favicon, also known as a shortcut icon, Web site icon, URL icon, or bookmark icon, is a file containing one or more small icons, most commonly 16×16 pixels, associated with a particular Web site or Web page. A web designer can create such an icon and install it into a Web site (or Web page) by several means, and graphical web browsers will then make use of it.Link

Friday, March 15, 2013


Irredentism (from Italian irredento, "unredeemed") is any position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. Some of these movements are also called pan-nationalist movements. It is a feature of identity politics and cultural and political geography. Because most borders have been moved and redrawn over time, a great many countries could theoretically present irredentist claims to their neighbors. Germany's Anschluss of Austria and annexation of German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia in 1938 and a return of territory from Czechoslovakia to Hungary as a result of the First Vienna Award are perhaps historical examples of this idea in practice.

Thursday, March 14, 2013


Brobdingnag is a fictional land in Jonathan Swift's satirical novel Gulliver's Travels occupied by giants. Lemuel Gulliver visits the land after the ship on which he is travelling is blown off course and he is separated from a party exploring the unknown land.

The adjective Brobdingnagian has come to describe anything of colossal size.

Wednesday, March 13, 2013


The Bosphorus is a strait that forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia. The world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, it connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara (which is connected by the Dardanelles to the Aegean Sea, and thereby to the Mediterranean Sea).

Tuesday, March 12, 2013


Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumants(c)h, or Romanche; Romansh: rumantsch/rumauntsch/romontsch; German: Rätoromanisch; Italian: Romancio) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. It is one of the Rhaeto-Romance languages, believed to have descended from the Vulgar Latin variety spoken by Roman era occupiers of the region, and, as such, is closely related to French, Occitan and Lombard, as well as other Romance languages to a lesser extent.

Monday, March 11, 2013


Soma (Sanskrit सोम sóma), or Haoma (Avestan), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-, was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the subsequent Vedic and greater Persian cultures. It is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, whose Soma Mandala contains 114 hymns, many praising its energizing qualities. In the Avesta, Haoma has the entire Yašt 20 and Yasna 9-11 dedicated to it.

Sunday, March 10, 2013


The name India may refer to either the region of Greater India (the Indian subcontinent), or to the contemporary Republic of India contained therein. The term is derived from the name of the Sindhu or Indus River and has been in use in Greek since the time of Herodotus (5th century BC), via Old Persian transmission. The term appears in Old English in the 9th century, and again in Modern English since the 17th century.

The Republic of India has three principal short names, in both official and popular English usage, each of which is historically significant. All originally designated a single entity comprising all the modern nations of the Indian subcontinent. These names are India and Bharat. The first Article of the Constitution of India states that "India, that is Bharat, shall be a union of states." Thus, India and Bharat are equally official short names for the Republic of India, Indians commonly refer to their country as Bharat, India depending on the context and language of conversation.

Saturday, March 9, 2013


An exonym (from the Greek: ἔξω, éxō, "out" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name for a place or a personal name that differs from that used in the official or well-established language within that place or for that person by the local inhabitants, or a name for a people or language that is not native to the people or language to which it refers. The name used by the people or locals themselves is called endonym, autonym (from the Greek ἔνδον, éndon, "within" or αὐτο-, auto-, "self" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name"), or self-appellation. For example, India, Germany, Greece, Japan, and Korea are the English exonyms corresponding to the endonyms Bharat, Deutschland, Hellas, Nippon/Nihon, and Goryeo.

Friday, March 8, 2013


The Romani (also Romany, Romanies, Romanis, Roma or Roms; exonym: Gypsy; Romani: Romane or Rromane, depending on the dialect) are an ethnic group living mostly in Europe, who trace their origins to the Indian Subcontinent.

The Romani are widely dispersed, with their largest concentrated populations in Europe, especially the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe and Anatolia, followed by the Iberian Kale in Southwestern Europe and Southern France. Deported to Brazil by Portugal during the colonial era and via more recent migrations, some people have gone to the Americas and, to a lesser extent, other parts of the world.

The Romani language is divided into several dialects, which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million. The total number of Romani people is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates). Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two.

Thursday, March 7, 2013


A Conservatory, as it is known today, had origins in the 16th century when wealthy landowners sought to cultivate citrus fruits such as lemons and oranges that began to appear on their dinner tables brought by traders from warmer regions of the Mediterranean.

Wednesday, March 6, 2013


Tree shaping is the practice of training living trees and other woody plants into artistic shapes and useful structures. The art is also known as tree training, arborsculpture, Pooktre and several other names. It is a form of living sculpture, sharing a common heritage with other artistic horticultural and agricultural practices, such as bonsai, espalier, and topiary, and employing some similar techniques. A unique and distinguishing feature evident in many (but not all) examples of the work is the purposeful inosculation of living trunks, branches, and roots to form artistic designs or functional structures.

Tuesday, March 5, 2013


Uxoricide (from Latin uxor meaning "wife") is murder of one's wife. It can refer to the act itself or the man who carries it out.

Monday, March 4, 2013


mawkish (comparative more mawkish, superlative most mawkish)

  1. (archaic or dialectal) Feeling sick, queasy.
  2. (archaic) Sickening or insipid in taste or smell.
  3. Excessively or falsely sentimental; showing a sickly excess of sentiment.

Sunday, March 3, 2013

Saturday, March 2, 2013


gatecrash (third-person singular simple present gatecrashes, present participle gatecrashing, simple past and past participle gatecrashed)

  1. To attend a social event without having been invited, or without having paid.

Friday, March 1, 2013


Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is a halide mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It is an isometric mineral with a cubic habit, though octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. Crystal twinning is common and adds complexity to the observed crystal habits.

The word fluorite is derived from the Latin root fluo, meaning "to flow" because the mineral is used in iron smelting as a flux to decrease the viscosity (increase the fluidity) of slags at a given temperature. This increase in fluidity is the result of the ionic nature of the mineral. The melting point of pure calcium fluoride is 1676 K.