Monday, November 30, 2015


Peritus (Latin for "expert") is the title given to Roman Catholic theologians who are present to give advice at an ecumenical council. At the most recent council, the Second Vatican Council, some periti (the plural form) accompanied individual bishops or groups of bishops from various countries. Others were formally appointed as advisers to the whole Council.
Father Joseph Ratzinger, formerly Pope Benedict XVI, served as peritus to Cardinal Josef Frings, Archbishop of Cologne, Germany, while Hans Küng was a peritus for the Council, rather than for an individual Bishop. The influential German theologian Father Karl Rahner S.J. served as peritus to Cardinal Franz König of Vienna. John Henry Newman refused an invitation to be a peritus at the First Vatican Council.
The periti often advocated ideas of reform in the Church and were often at the center of debates with some of the more traditional scholars from the Coetus Internationalis Patrum.

Sunday, November 29, 2015


In aeronautics, a canard (French for "duck") is a fixed-wing aircraft configuration in which a small horizontal surface, also named the canard or foreplane, is positioned forward of the main wing in contrast to the conventional position at the tail. Because of this it is sometimes described as "tail-first".
The term "canard" arose in France. The appearance of the Santos-Dumont 14-bis of 1906 reminded the French public of a flying duck (Fr. canard)., and later the Fabre Hydravion of 1910 was named "Le Canard". Thereafter all aeroplanes with a foreplane were known as canards


Saturday, November 28, 2015


Canard is French for duck, an aquatic bird. In English, a canard may be an unfounded rumor or story.

Friday, November 27, 2015

Thursday, November 26, 2015


quadrature (plural quadratures)
  1. the process of making something square; squaring
  2. (mathematics) [1]  [quotations ▼]
  3. (astronomy) a situation in which three celestial bodies form a right-angled triangle, the observer being located at the right angle
    When the Moon is in quadrature, it appears in the sky as a half-moon.
  4. (physics) the condition in which the phase angle between two alternating quantities is 90°
  5. (art) A painting painted on a wooden panel

Wednesday, November 25, 2015


The quadratojugal is a small jaw bone that is present in most amphibians, reptiles and birds, but has been lost in mammals. It is connected to the jugal as well as other bones, though these may vary with species.
The quadratojugal bone is a small bone between the cheek and otic notch. Squamates (lizards and snakes) lack a quadratojugal bone.

Tuesday, November 24, 2015


quadratrix (plural quadratrices or quadratrixes)
  1. (mathematics) A curve having ordinates which are a measure of the area (or quadrature) of another curve.

Monday, November 23, 2015

Sunday, November 22, 2015


triennial (not comparable)
  1. Happening every three years.
    triennial elections
    (Can we find and add a quotation of T. Warton to this entry?)
  2. Lasting for three years.
    triennial parliaments; a triennial reign
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Howell to this entry?)
    triennial (plural triennials)
  3. A third anniversary.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

trust metric

In psychology and sociology, a trust metric is a measurement of the degree to which one social actor (an individual or a group) trusts another social actor. Trust metrics may be abstracted in a manner that can be implemented on computers, making them of interest for the study and engineering of virtual communities, such as Friendster and LiveJournal.
Trust escapes a simple measurement because its meaning is too subjective for universally reliable metrics, and the fact that it is a mental process, unavailable to instruments. There is a strong argument against the use of simplistic metrics to measure trust due to the complexity of the process and the 'embeddedness' of trust that makes it impossible to isolate trust from related factors. For a detailed discussion about different trust metrics see.

Friday, November 20, 2015

olfactory nerve

The olfactory nerve, or cranial nerve I, is the first of twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It is instrumental in the sense of smell. Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is capable of regeneration. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the anterosuperior nasal cavity. From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve travels down the olfactory tract until it reaches the olfactory bulb, where the fascicles of the olfactory nerve pass through foramina on the cribriform plate, which resides on the roof of the nasal cavity. These fascicles are not visible on a cadaver brain because they are severed upon removal.

Thursday, November 19, 2015


Insufflation (Latin insufflatio "blowing on" or "into") is the practice of inhaling a substance. Insufflation has medical use as a route of administration for many respiratory drugs used to treat conditions in the lungs (e.g., asthma or emphysema) and paranasal sinus (e.g., allergy).
The technique is common for many recreational drugs and is also used for some entheogens. Nasal insufflation (snorting) is commonly used for many psychoactive drugs because it causes a much faster onset than orally, and bioavailability is usually, but not always, higher than orally. This bioavailability occurs due to the quick absorption of molecules into the bloodstream through the soft tissue in the mucous membrane of the sinus cavity and portal circulation bypass. Some drugs have a higher rate of absorption, and are thus more effective in smaller doses, through this route. Prodrugs, drugs that are metabolized or activated by the liver (such as codeine), should not be insufflated, because they need to be metabolized by the liver to break down into the compounds that are active (drugs absorbed through the GI tract pass through the liver before entering the systemic circulation, where drugs which are insufflated are absorbed directly into the systemic circulation).

Wednesday, November 18, 2015


File:Schnupftabak lose.jpg
Snuff is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves. It is insufflated (inhaled) or "snuffed" into the nasal cavity (into each nostril), delivering a swift 'hit' of nicotine and a lasting flavoured scent (especially if flavouring has been blended with the tobacco). Traditionally it is sniffed or inhaled lightly after a pinch of snuff is placed onto the back surface of the hand or held pinched between thumb and index finger, as well as using specially made "snuffing" devices. There is a general misconception associated with "the snuff sniff". The nicotine in snuff is absorbed through the mucus membrane, so a pinch of snuff only needs to get into the nose. Most snuffers agree that if the snuff gets into the sinuses, one is inhaling too strongly.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015


Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials. They were used in pairs. The lower, stationary, stone is called a quern, while the upper mobile stone is called a handstone. They were first used in the Neolithic to grind cereals into flour.


Monday, November 16, 2015


Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society (see David & Kramer 2001). Ethnoarchaeology aids archaeologists in reconstructing ancient lifeways by studying the material and non-material traditions of modern societies. Archaeologists can then infer that ancient societies used the same techniques as their modern counterparts given a similar set of environmental circumstances.


Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people" and γράφω grapho "to write") is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing, the culture of a group.
Ethnography, as the empirical data on human societies and cultures, was pioneered in the biological, social, and cultural branches of anthropology but has also become popular in the social sciences in general—sociology, communication studies, history—wherever people study ethnic groups, formations, compositions, resettlements, social welfare characteristics, materiality, spirituality, and a people's ethnogenesis. The typical ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the habitat. In all cases it should be reflexive, make a substantial contribution toward the understanding of the social life of humans, have an aesthetic impact on the reader, and express a credible reality. It observes the world (the study) from the point of view of the subject (not the participant ethnographer) and records all observed behavior and describes all symbol-meaning relations using concepts that avoid casual explanations.

Sunday, November 15, 2015


Antipositivism (also known as interpretivism or interpretive sociology) is the view in social science that the social realm may not be subject to the same methods of investigation as the natural world; that academics must reject empiricism and the scientific method in the conduct of social research. Antipositivists hold that researchers should focus on understanding the interpretations that social actions have for the people being studied.
Antipositivism relates to various historical debates in the philosophy and sociology of science. In modern practice, however, interpretivism may be equated with qualitative research methods, while positivist research is more quantitative. Positivists typically use research methods such as experiments and statistical surveys, while antipositivists use research methods which rely more on ethnographic fieldwork, conversation/discourse analysis or open-ended interviews. Positivist and antipositivist methods are sometimes combined.

Saturday, November 14, 2015

social stratification

In sociology, social stratification is a concept involving the "classification of people into groups based on shared socio-economic conditions ... a relational set of inequalities with economic, social, political and ideological dimensions." When differences lead to greater status, power or privilege for some groups over the other it is called Social Stratification. It is a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy Social stratification is based on four basic principles: (1) Social stratification is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences; (2) Social stratification carries over from generation to generation; (3) Social stratification is universal but variable; (4) Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well.

Friday, November 13, 2015

Charismatic authority

Charismatic authority is one of three forms of authority laid out by sociologist Max Weber in his tripartite classification of authority, the other two being traditional authority and rational-legal authority.
Max Weber defined charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained by him."
The concept has acquired wide usage among sociologists. Other terms used are "charismatic domination" and "charismatic leadership".

Thursday, November 12, 2015



an injection of the author of a work's traits into a piece of writing.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015


A common drum pattern in hardcore/brocore music produced by alternating between the floor tom, bass, and snare. The drummer may also rotate his/her torso for dramatic effect as he/she goes back and forth from floor tom to snare drum. The beat is repeated several times and often preludes or follows a breakdown.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015


browbeat VERB (third-person singular simple present browbeats, present participle browbeating, simple past browbeat, past participle browbeaten)
  1. (transitive) To bully in an intimidating, bossy, or supercilious way.
    Though the teacher browbeat all the children, they still acted out during the lesson.

Monday, November 9, 2015

Sunday, November 8, 2015


Hopperesque (comparative more Hopperesque, superlative most Hopperesque)
  1. Reminiscent of Edward Hopper (1882–1967), American realist painter and printmaker.
File:Smash The Hun - Dry Dock Dial cover.jpg
Poster illustration, Smash the Hun (1919)

File:Edward Hopper Road in Maine.jpg 
 Road in Maine (1914)

Saturday, November 7, 2015


Plastination is a technique or process used in anatomy to preserve bodies or body parts, first developed by Gunther von Hagens in 1977. The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most properties of the original sample.

Friday, November 6, 2015



Thursday, November 5, 2015


coterminous (comparative more coterminous, superlative most coterminous)
  1. (of property leases) Linked or related and expiring together.
  2. (of regions or properties) Having matching boundaries; or, adjoining and sharing a boundary.
    New York City's borough of Brooklyn and New York State's Kings County are coterminous.
    To get a building warrant he had to show the plans to "coterminous proprietors", neighbours with whom his property shared a boundary.
  3. Having the same scope, range of meaning, or extent in time.
  4. Meeting end to end or at the ends.

Wednesday, November 4, 2015


Kaiten (Japanese: 回天, literal translation: "Return to the sky", commonly rendered as: "The turn toward heaven", "The Heaven Shaker" or "Change the World") were manned torpedoes and suicide craft, used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.

File:Kaiten Type 1 on display at the Yūshūkan in October 2008.JPG

Tuesday, November 3, 2015


A flue is a duct, pipe, or opening in a chimney for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, water heater, boiler, or generator to the outdoors. Historically the term flue meant the chimney itself. In the United States, they are also known as vents and for boilers as breeching for water heaters and modern furnaces. They usually operate by buoyancy, also known as the stack effect, or the combustion products may be 'induced' via a blower. As combustion products contain carbon monoxide and other dangerous compounds, proper 'draft', and admission of replacement air is imperative. Building codes, and other standards, regulate their materials, design, and installation.
File:Seven-flue Stack 1834 .png

Monday, November 2, 2015


A caster (or castor) is an undriven, single, double, or compound wheel that is designed to be mounted to the bottom of a larger object (the "vehicle") so as to enable that object to be easily moved. They are available in various sizes, and are commonly made of rubber, plastic, nylon, aluminum, or stainless steel.
Casters are found in numerous applications, including shopping carts, office chairs, and material handling equipment. High capacity, heavy duty casters are used in many industrial applications, such as platform trucks, carts, assemblies, and tow lines in plants. Generally, casters operate well on smooth and flat surfaces.

Sunday, November 1, 2015


Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air. Among the common conventions for qualifying airspeed are: indicated airspeed ("IAS"), calibrated airspeed ("CAS"), true airspeed ("TAS"), equivalent airspeed ("EAS") and density airspeed.
File:FAA-8083-3A Fig 12-1.PNG
The measurement and indication of airspeed is ordinarily accomplished on board an aircraft by an airspeed indicator ("ASI") connected to a pitot-static system. The pitot-static system comprises one or more pitot probes (or tubes) facing the on-coming air flow to measure pitot pressure (also called stagnation, total or ram pressure) and one or more static ports to measure the static pressure in the air flow. These two pressures are compared by the ASI to give an IAS reading.