Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people" and γράφω grapho "to write") is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing, the culture of a group.
Ethnography, as the empirical data on human societies and cultures, was pioneered in the biological, social, and cultural branches of anthropology but has also become popular in the social sciences in general—sociology,
communication studies, history—wherever people study ethnic groups,
formations, compositions, resettlements, social welfare characteristics,
materiality, spirituality, and a people's ethnogenesis. The typical ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the habitat.
In all cases it should be reflexive, make a substantial contribution
toward the understanding of the social life of humans, have an aesthetic
impact on the reader, and express a credible reality. It observes the
world (the study) from the point of view of the subject (not the participant
ethnographer) and records all observed behavior and describes all
symbol-meaning relations using concepts that avoid casual explanations.