In schools in Scotland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and
Iceland, dux is a modern title given to the top student in academic and
sporting achievement (Dux Litterarum and Dux Ludorum respectively) in each graduating year. In this usage, Dux is similar to the American concept of a valedictorian. The runner-up may be given the title proxime accessit (meaning "he came next") or semidux.